Today, more and more IT departments are choosing Virtual Desktop Infrastructures (VDI) to avail the benefits. However, there are critical factors that must be taken care of else, will lead to losses in the management and cost savings of virtualization. Performance can hamper productivity, as can happen when virtual applications and desktops are delivered across a lang-haul networks or Wide Area Network (WAN).
We would try to look at the potential causes and their corresponding optimizations that can be achieved to tackle them individually.
1. Tackling Basic Network Issues
For beginners, it makes sense to understand why your virtualized applications and virtual desktops perform poorly across the WAN. It’s typically not due to the application or VDI components, but due to the network. More specifically, virtualized environments are sensitive to the following WAN characteristics:
- Bandwidth: WAN bandwidth may or may not be an issue depending on the type of traffic being sent. While most virtualized applications are fairly efficient when it comes to bandwidth consumption, some activities (such as file transfers and print jobs) consume significant bandwidth, which can present a performance challenge.
- Latency: the time it takes for data to travel from one location to one another.
- Packet loss: when packets get dropped or delivered out of order due to network congestion they must be re-transmitted across the WAN. This can turn a 200 millisecond roundtrip into one second. To end users, the virtual application or desktop seems unresponsive when packets are being re-transmitted. They start to re-hit the keys on their client machines, which compounds the problem
2. Reconcile WAN Optimization Techniques
WAN optimization devices can be deployed on both ends of a WAN link to improve the performance of all enterprise applications. The following WAN optimization techniques are used by these devices to improve the performance of virtual applications and desktops:
Latency can be overcome by mitigating the “chattiness” of TCP, the transport protocol used to by virtual applications for communication across the WAN. More specifically, WAN optimization devices can be configured to send more data within specific windows, and minimize the number of back and forth acknowledgements required prior to sending data. This improves the responsiveness of keystrokes in a virtual environment.
Loss can be mitigated by rebuilding dropped packets on the far end of a WAN link, and re-sequencing packets that are delivered out of order in real-time. This eliminates the need to re-transmit packets every time they are dropped or delivered out-of-order. By avoiding re-transmissions, virtual applications and desktops appear much more responsive across the WAN.
Bandwidth can be reduced using WAN deduplication. By monitoring all data sent across the WAN, repetitive information can be detected and delivered locally rather than resent across the network. This significantly improves bandwidth utilization in some (but not all) virtualized environments.
3. Change Application Precendence
The average enterprise has more than 100 applications that are accessed across the WAN. That means that critical applications, including terminal services and VDI, are vying for the same resources as less important traffic, such as Internet browsing. Because virtual applications and desktops are sensitive to latency, it often makes sense to prioritize this traffic over other applications using Quality of Service (QoS) techniques. In addition, QoS can guarantee bandwidth for VDI and virtual applications. The best practices like use of DSCP code points, and priotrity technicques can be used to make things silky smooth.
4. Compress and Encrypt in the Right Place
Often times host machines compress information prior to transmission. This is meant to improve bandwidth utilization in a virtual environment. However, compression obfuscates visibility into the actual data, which makes it difficult for downstream WAN optimization devices to provide their full value. Therefore, it may be a better choice to turn off compression functionality in the virtual host (if possible), and instead enable it in the WAN optimization device.
Moving compression into the WAN optimization device has another added benefit: it frees up CPU cycles within the host machine. This can lead to better performance and scalability throughout a virtual environment.
It should be re-considered, where encryption takes place in a virtual infrastructure, since encryption also consumes CPU cycles in the host. There are a no. of SSL offloaders, encryption offloader boxes availble like the ones from Radware, which can seamlessly remove this overhead from the virtualized system.
5. Re-concile Scalability and Network Intelligence
Network scalability can have an important impact on the performance of virtual applications and VDI. The average thin client machine has 10 to 15 TCP flows open at any given time. If thousands of clients are accessing host machines in the same centralized facility, that location must be equipped to handle tens of thousands of simultaneous sessions.
You can use Network intelligence products to estimate the growth and the future trends of your traffic and scale up to it right in time.
When it comes to supporting large numbers of flows, there are two “best practice” recommendations. First, as discussed above, it is recommended that compression and encryption be moved off the host machine to free up CPU cycles. Second, make sure your WAN acceleration device supports the right amount of flows for your environment. The last thing you want to do is create an artificial bottleneck within the very devices deployed to remove your WAN’s bottlenecks.
Virtualization holds the Data houses of the future, invest intelligently!